Food Carbon Footprint Index 2018

At nu3, we know healthy and sustainable living is a key concern for many, with the environmental impacts of our eating habits at the forefront of discussion. To further the debate, we’ve undertaken a study which looks into the food industry’s carbon footprint, directly comparing different diets in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The research, which reveals the annual CO2 emissions per person for 130 nations worldwide, shows which countries could significantly reduce their carbon footprint by switching to a plant-based diet, as well as which food types generate the highest carbon dioxide emissions.

The study analyses data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to determine the quantity of produce supplied for consumption of 11 food types for all countries researched. Using CO2 emissions data, the carbon footprint per capita is then calculated for each food type. This allows a direct comparison of the CO2 produced for each food type, as well as between seven animal products and four non-animal products. Finally, and to determine the index’s final ranking, the difference between the average CO2 produced by eating 1kg of animal product versus 1kg of non-animal product was calculated. This number reveals how many kgs of CO2 an individual could reduce their carbon footprint by per year if they switched from an animal to a non-animal diet.

“Veganism is an increasingly mainstream lifestyle choice, as demonstrated by our vegan product revenue doubling in the last year alone. With this study revealing how switching diets could drastically reduce our carbon footprint, it’s becoming increasingly harder to ignore the benefits of moving to a plant-based diet, both for our health and our planet.” says Robert Sünderhauf, CEO at nu3. “For those who find the idea of completely giving up meat a challenge, this index highlights some realistic and achievable alternatives. For instance, healthier fish and poultry have a far lower CO2 emission rate than fatty red meats such as lamb and beef, while eggs produce significantly lower emission rates than milk products and cheese. All evidence points towards a mainly plant-based diet, with lean animal-based protein if needed, to help both our bodies and our environment prosper.”

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International Results

  • Animal Products

  •  Pork
  •  Poultry
  •  Beef
  •  Lamb and Goat
  •  Fish
  •  Eggs
  •  Milk – inc. cheese
  •  Average Kg CO2/person/year
  • Non-Animal Products

  •  Wheat and Wheat Products
  •  Rice
  •  Soybeans
  •  Nuts inc. Peanut Butter
  •  Average Kg CO2/person/year
  • More

  •  Supplied for Consumption (kg/person/year)
  •  Kg CO2/person/year
  •  Animal vs. Non-Animal Products:
    Difference – Kg CO2/person/year
Animal Products Non-Animal Products Animal vs. Non-Animal Products:
                      Difference – Kg CO2/person/year
# Country                                                  
1 Argentina 10.51 37.20 38.66 41.53 55.48 1712.00 1.56 54.63 4.36 6.96 11.39 10.46 195.08 277.87 305.81 103.11 19.66 8.77 11.22 0.00 0.00 0.49 0.87 7.94 297.87
2 Australia 24.14 85.44 46.12 49.54 33.86 1044.85 9.87 345.65 17.69 28.25 8.51 7.82 234.49 334.01 270.79 70.46 13.44 11.03 14.12 0.19 0.09 8.73 15.45 10.77 260.02
3 Iceland 21.69 76.77 26.87 28.86 13.36 412.26 21.12 739.62 74.41 118.81 8.24 7.57 225.82 321.66 243.65 72.92 13.91 3.89 4.98 0.11 0.05 3.88 6.87 6.45 237.20
4 Albania 10.88 38.51 13.23 14.21 22.50 694.30 15.32 536.50 3.85 6.15 12.45 11.44 303.72 432.62 247.68 138.64 26.44 7.78 9.96 0.00 0.00 4.36 7.72 11.03 236.65
5 New Zealand 22.29 78.90 34.98 37.58 22.49 693.99 18.91 662.23 20.36 32.51 9.91 9.10 137.25 195.50 244.26 76.91 14.67 9.16 11.72 0.44 0.20 8.22 14.55 10.28 233.97
6 USA 27.64 97.83 50.01 53.72 36.24 1118.29 0.43 15.06 12.35 19.72 14.58 13.39 254.69 362.78 240.11 80.43 15.34 6.88 8.80 0.04 0.02 7.86 13.91 9.52 230.60
7 Uruguay 16.84 59.61 27.45 29.49 29.10 897.96 8.23 288.21 6.53 10.43 13.14 12.07 210.54 299.89 228.24 109.31 20.85 11.50 14.72 0.01 0.00 0.95 1.68 9.31 218.93
8 Luxembourg 43.58 154.25 21.37 22.96 29.88 922.03 1.67 58.48 23.09 36.87 14.64 13.45 255.30 363.65 224.53 103.20 19.68 4.20 5.37 0.04 0.02 0.93 1.65 6.68 217.85
9 Kazakhstan 10.36 36.67 18.38 19.74 23.38 721.46 9.56 334.79 5.21 8.32 8.29 7.62 288.12 410.40 219.86 92.31 17.60 7.32 9.37 0.03 0.01 5.14 9.10 9.02 210.84
10 Brazil 12.60 44.60 45.00 48.34 39.25 1211.17 0.62 21.71 10.01 15.98 8.98 8.25 149.28 212.63 223.24 53.00 10.11 32.13 41.12 3.62 1.63 0.67 1.19 13.51 209.73
11 Sweden 37.00 130.96 16.64 17.87 24.58 758.49 1.41 49.38 23.86 38.10 13.37 12.28 341.23 486.05 213.30 79.59 15.18 5.96 7.63 0.13 0.06 6.23 11.03 8.47 204.83
12 Bermuda 28.24 99.96 32.62 35.04 33.15 1022.94 2.71 94.90 33.22 53.04 14.92 13.71 95.56 136.12 207.96 54.88 10.47 5.38 6.88 0.22 0.10 5.72 10.12 6.89 201.06
13 Denmark 24.87 88.03 26.75 28.73 28.46 878.22 0.92 32.22 16.49 26.33 15.35 14.10 277.30 394.99 208.94 98.00 18.69 4.96 6.35 0.03 0.01 5.94 10.51 8.89 200.05
14 Finland 36.14 127.92 19.87 21.34 19.22 593.09 0.53 18.56 33.80 53.97 9.55 8.77 430.76 613.57 205.32 81.99 15.64 4.42 5.66 0.08 0.04 3.43 6.07 6.85 198.47
15 Ireland 32.40 114.68 26.26 28.21 22.35 689.67 4.10 143.58 17.39 27.77 8.96 8.23 291.86 415.73 203.98 107.98 20.59 3.00 3.84 0.25 0.11 4.10 7.26 7.95 196.03
16 Greece 28.31 100.20 15.74 16.91 16.10 496.81 12.47 436.70 14.42 23.02 10.13 9.31 255.26 363.59 206.65 124.04 23.65 6.64 8.50 0.02 0.01 10.50 18.59 12.69 193.96
17 France 33.05 116.98 22.93 24.63 23.81 734.73 3.28 114.87 22.91 36.58 13.13 12.06 241.31 343.72 197.65 108.43 20.68 4.88 6.24 0.05 0.02 5.39 9.54 9.12 188.53
18 Canada 22.81 80.74 36.68 39.40 30.25 933.45 0.97 33.97 14.56 23.25 12.95 11.90 187.77 267.46 198.59 84.96 16.20 12.65 16.19 0.94 0.42 8.01 14.18 11.75 186.85
19 Norway 23.51 83.21 21.01 22.57 19.83 611.91 5.34 187.01 38.18 60.96 11.41 10.48 261.34 372.25 192.63 97.12 18.52 4.36 5.58 0.11 0.05 5.28 9.35 8.37 184.25
20 Switzerland 31.49 111.46 16.38 17.60 21.26 656.04 1.42 49.73 13.48 21.52 10.53 9.67 318.69 453.94 188.57 89.51 17.07 2.43 3.11 0.44 0.20 9.27 16.41 9.20 179.37
21 French Polynesia 14.75 52.21 49.55 53.23 30.90 953.51 2.83 99.11 38.95 62.19 8.75 8.04 93.56 133.27 194.51 68.67 13.10 35.59 45.54 0.77 0.35 2.34 4.14 15.78 178.72
22 Israel 1.99 7.04 62.50 67.14 28.78 888.09 1.87 65.49 22.18 35.41 11.35 10.43 193.60 275.76 192.77 110.86 21.14 16.81 21.51 0.10 0.05 7.71 13.65 14.09 178.68
23 Hong Kong SAR. China 67.11 237.54 54.86 58.93 25.82 796.75 2.22 77.74 42.44 67.76 14.50 13.32 105.85 150.77 200.40 53.14 10.13 43.48 55.64 2.79 1.26 13.81 24.44 22.87 177.53
24 Netherlands 36.36 128.70 23.90 25.67 17.67 545.26 0.94 32.92 18.64 29.76 14.03 12.89 341.47 486.39 180.23 70.17 13.38 2.93 3.75 0.12 0.05 7.94 14.05 7.81 172.42
25 United Kingdom 25.79 91.28 31.55 33.89 18.12 559.15 4.49 157.24 15.49 24.73 11.08 10.18 232.20 330.75 172.46 98.63 18.81 6.39 8.18 0.05 0.02 4.18 7.40 8.60 163.86
26 Kuwait 0.00 0.00 53.61 57.59 13.03 402.08 15.61 546.66 11.99 19.14 12.60 11.57 157.66 224.57 180.23 96.76 18.45 43.83 56.09 0.06 0.03 5.23 9.26 20.96 159.27
27 Austria 52.56 186.04 18.61 19.99 17.14 528.90 1.16 40.62 12.16 19.42 14.68 13.49 258.09 367.62 168.01 81.10 15.47 3.70 4.73 2.06 0.93 7.88 13.95 8.77 159.24
28 Italy 40.28 142.57 18.61 19.99 18.60 573.96 0.92 32.22 15.60 24.91 13.34 12.25 246.88 351.66 165.37 146.37 27.91 5.74 7.35 0.01 0.00 7.63 13.51 12.19 153.17
29 Bahamas 32.74 115.88 45.74 49.13 19.92 614.69 5.22 182.80 18.80 30.02 6.20 5.70 104.76 149.22 163.92 39.98 7.62 23.97 30.67 0.09 0.04 4.03 7.13 11.37 152.55
30 Oman 0.01 0.04 31.51 33.85 15.10 465.95 12.87 450.71 21.56 34.42 7.80 7.17 152.28 216.91 172.72 64.10 12.22 56.55 72.37 0.21 0.09 1.68 2.97 21.91 150.81
31 Portugal 37.91 134.18 30.14 32.38 16.45 507.61 2.38 83.35 45.39 72.47 9.05 8.31 205.04 292.06 161.48 94.30 17.98 14.86 19.02 0.01 0.00 3.91 6.92 10.98 150.50
32 Malta 34.24 121.19 26.40 28.36 19.22 593.09 1.19 41.67 24.58 39.25 11.64 10.69 190.06 270.72 157.85 139.58 26.62 4.96 6.35 0.05 0.02 5.62 9.95 10.73 147.12
33 Armenia 9.67 34.23 13.35 14.34 19.66 606.67 3.02 105.76 4.36 6.96 11.69 10.74 209.03 297.74 153.78 130.60 24.91 3.18 4.07 0.00 0.00 2.55 4.51 8.37 145.40
34 Slovenia 28.19 99.78 23.46 25.20 18.43 568.71 0.79 27.67 7.76 12.39 9.36 8.60 235.01 334.75 153.87 103.43 19.72 3.95 5.05 0.75 0.34 5.28 9.35 8.62 145.25
35 Chile 24.68 87.35 36.52 39.23 23.86 736.27 0.42 14.71 7.65 12.21 9.97 9.16 116.11 165.39 152.05 104.74 19.97 8.85 11.33 0.04 0.02 2.22 3.93 8.81 143.23
36 Venezuela  7.23 25.59 39.28 42.19 25.89 798.91 0.32 11.21 8.34 13.32 5.63 5.17 117.79 167.78 152.02 49.17 9.38 23.39 29.93 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.62 9.98 142.04
37 Belgium 38.65 136.80 12.20 13.11 15.63 482.31 1.32 46.23 18.97 30.29 12.59 11.57 236.19 336.43 150.96 111.91 21.34 8.61 11.02 0.07 0.03 7.32 12.96 11.34 139.62
38 Germany 51.81 183.38 17.75 19.07 13.16 406.09 0.73 25.56 11.16 17.82 12.20 11.21 258.70 368.49 147.37 83.41 15.91 3.34 4.27 0.88 0.40 7.96 14.09 8.67 138.71
39 Russia 25.66 90.82 27.50 29.54 16.98 523.97 1.40 49.03 20.82 33.24 15.43 14.17 163.57 232.99 139.11 130.99 24.98 4.71 6.03 0.05 0.02 1.62 2.87 8.47 130.63
40 Croatia 42.79 151.46 8.52 9.15 12.41 382.95 1.71 59.88 15.83 25.28 8.48 7.79 231.02 329.06 137.94 106.59 20.33 2.64 3.38 0.00 0.00 3.88 6.87 7.64 130.30
41 Belarus 40.37 142.89 31.29 33.61 17.11 527.98 0.11 3.85 15.75 25.15 15.86 14.57 133.73 190.49 134.08 60.48 11.53 3.17 4.06 0.30 0.14 3.36 5.95 5.42 128.66
42 Spain 48.92 173.15 28.63 30.75 12.15 374.92 2.16 75.64 28.83 46.03 13.32 12.24 164.29 234.01 135.25 93.88 17.90 8.32 10.65 0.02 0.01 7.44 13.17 10.43 124.82
43 Paraguay 26.24 92.88 6.39 6.86 19.81 611.29 0.56 19.61 3.60 5.75 18.83 17.30 75.72 107.86 123.08 31.51 6.01 4.91 6.28 0.00 0.00 1.60 2.83 3.78 119.30
44 New Caledonia 19.90 70.44 44.36 47.65 16.07 495.89 1.95 68.29 19.38 30.94 8.85 8.13 108.00 153.84 125.02 81.75 15.59 17.47 22.36 0.55 0.25 2.96 5.24 10.86 114.17
45 South Africa 4.16 14.72 37.57 40.36 18.03 556.37 4.28 149.89 5.56 8.88 7.21 6.62 55.75 79.41 122.32 60.13 11.47 17.41 22.28 1.27 0.57 1.04 1.84 9.04 113.28
46 Lithuania 45.67 161.65 26.84 28.83 4.49 138.55 0.24 8.40 42.39 67.68 13.11 12.04 295.46 420.85 119.72 121.59 23.19 3.07 3.93 0.02 0.01 2.13 3.77 7.72 111.99
47 Barbados 8.30 29.38 42.62 45.78 13.13 405.16 4.08 142.88 37.41 59.73 9.61 8.83 110.48 157.37 121.30 65.71 12.53 15.66 20.04 0.10 0.05 4.16 7.36 9.99 111.31
48 Estonia 29.68 105.05 21.11 22.68 7.19 221.87 0.44 15.41 12.78 20.41 12.66 11.63 284.85 405.74 114.68 89.36 17.04 2.56 3.28 0.04 0.02 4.29 7.59 6.98 107.70
49 Mexico 15.23 53.91 30.12 32.35 15.33 473.05 0.89 31.17 7.56 12.07 18.34 16.85 111.87 159.35 111.25 35.21 6.71 5.64 7.22 0.02 0.01 2.51 4.44 4.60 106.65
50 Turkey 0.01 0.04 18.78 20.17 11.64 359.19 4.68 163.89 5.58 8.91 8.20 7.53 193.94 276.25 119.43 169.96 32.41 10.74 13.74 1.71 0.77 7.97 14.11 15.26 104.17
51 Bolivia 8.89 31.47 34.31 36.86 19.78 610.37 1.72 60.23 2.18 3.48 5.18 4.76 46.04 65.58 116.11 49.99 9.53 26.99 34.54 0.01 0.00 9.16 16.21 15.07 101.03
52 Costa Rica 10.28 36.39 24.47 26.29 15.23 469.97 0.02 0.70 11.32 18.07 10.55 9.69 183.28 261.06 117.45 39.31 7.50 45.69 58.47 1.54 0.69 1.38 2.44 17.28 100.18
53 Ecuador 14.44 51.11 21.85 23.47 16.61 512.55 0.44 15.41 5.17 8.25 8.01 7.36 139.60 198.85 116.71 39.19 7.47 45.07 57.68 0.00 0.00 0.98 1.73 16.72 99.99
54 Czech Republic 41.17 145.72 19.09 20.51 8.15 251.49 0.34 11.91 8.25 13.17 11.66 10.71 195.20 278.04 104.51 92.67 17.67 4.79 6.13 0.82 0.37 2.47 4.37 7.14 97.37
55 Romania 25.31 89.58 15.38 16.52 4.78 147.50 3.41 119.42 6.07 9.69 12.94 11.89 238.33 339.48 104.87 134.87 25.72 2.59 3.31 0.01 0.00 1.80 3.19 8.06 96.81
56 Panama 13.48 47.71 30.81 33.10 20.40 629.50 0.01 0.35 11.05 17.64 4.53 4.16 70.29 100.12 118.94 38.96 7.43 66.42 85.00 3.53 1.59 1.05 1.86 23.97 94.97
57 Colombia 6.51 23.04 27.57 29.62 16.36 504.84 0.21 7.35 6.01 9.60 10.78 9.90 108.47 154.50 105.55 29.79 5.68 28.02 35.86 0.89 0.40 0.42 0.74 10.67 94.88
58 Cyprus 38.38 135.85 24.45 26.26 5.79 178.67 5.05 176.85 14.86 23.73 8.98 8.25 113.31 161.40 101.57 83.25 15.88 4.94 6.32 0.04 0.02 4.60 8.14 7.59 93.98
59 Serbia 32.04 113.41 10.64 11.43 7.05 217.55 3.56 124.67 5.59 8.93 8.89 8.17 148.53 211.57 99.39 105.88 20.19 1.22 1.56 0.00 0.00 3.31 5.86 6.90 92.48
60 Maldives 1.22 4.32 18.47 19.84 9.44 291.30 0.70 24.51 179.71 286.94 10.79 9.91 111.47 158.78 113.66 77.77 14.83 50.73 64.92 0.20 0.09 15.83 28.02 26.96 86.69
61 Algeria 0.00 0.00 7.42 7.97 5.60 172.80 7.69 269.30 3.74 5.97 8.06 7.40 141.53 201.60 95.01 185.42 35.36 2.97 3.80 0.00 0.00 2.08 3.68 10.71 84.30
62 Ukraine 20.56 72.77 24.23 26.03 8.96 276.49 0.41 14.36 15.23 24.32 18.01 16.54 145.03 206.58 91.01 105.15 20.05 3.00 3.84 0.02 0.01 2.68 4.74 7.16 83.85
63 Latvia 34.96 123.74 20.53 22.05 5.11 157.68 0.34 11.91 21.30 34.01 14.03 12.89 174.11 248.00 87.18 72.13 13.76 2.21 2.83 0.04 0.02 3.78 6.69 5.82 81.36
64 Pakistan 0.00 0.00 5.01 5.38 8.82 272.17 2.46 86.15 1.87 2.99 2.95 2.71 183.13 260.85 90.03 113.63 21.67 12.25 15.68 0.00 0.00 0.83 1.47 9.70 80.33
65 Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.38 33.20 13.17 14.15 9.12 281.42 0.47 16.46 4.06 6.48 4.49 4.12 174.03 247.89 86.25 93.56 17.84 1.88 2.41 1.48 0.67 2.00 3.54 6.11 80.13
66 Swaziland 2.43 8.60 6.18 6.64 15.10 465.95 1.94 67.94 1.26 2.01 1.50 1.38 56.60 80.62 90.45 37.15 7.08 21.15 27.07 0.55 0.25 6.44 11.40 11.45 79.00
67 Poland 46.19 163.49 27.41 29.44 2.32 71.59 0.02 0.70 10.49 16.75 7.53 6.92 205.39 292.56 83.06 108.83 20.75 0.95 1.22 0.06 0.03 2.23 3.95 6.49 76.58
68 United Arab Emirates 0.00 0.00 41.04 44.09 5.64 174.04 9.08 317.98 20.41 32.59 8.23 7.56 132.66 188.96 109.32 101.29 19.32 56.25 71.98 0.08 0.04 23.03 40.76 33.02 76.29
69 Botswana 0.74 2.62 5.33 5.73 7.85 242.23 3.76 131.67 3.98 6.35 1.95 1.79 117.74 167.71 79.73 38.20 7.28 7.06 9.03 1.16 0.52 1.08 1.91 4.69 75.04
70 Hungary 34.93 123.63 23.78 25.54 4.96 153.06 0.11 3.85 4.93 7.87 12.45 11.44 159.05 226.55 78.85 109.98 20.97 2.15 2.75 0.01 0.00 0.64 1.13 6.22 72.63
71 Macedonia 10.35 36.63 18.77 20.16 7.69 237.30 0.94 32.92 5.47 8.73 6.38 5.86 157.93 224.96 80.94 104.80 19.99 2.81 3.60 0.46 0.21 5.87 10.39 8.54 72.39
72 Fiji 4.31 15.26 20.26 21.76 8.96 276.49 5.90 206.62 35.01 55.90 6.44 5.92 40.20 57.26 91.31 84.22 16.06 45.62 58.38 0.30 0.14 1.30 2.30 19.22 72.09
73 Saudi Arabia 0.00 0.00 49.05 52.69 6.45 199.03 6.54 229.03 11.99 19.14 5.37 4.93 83.65 119.15 89.14 89.47 17.06 36.02 46.09 0.05 0.02 3.23 5.72 17.22 71.92
74 Trinidad and Tobago 8.92 31.57 58.27 62.59 6.13 189.16 2.79 97.71 20.54 32.80 4.20 3.86 103.80 147.85 80.79 90.17 17.20 16.38 20.96 0.04 0.02 3.78 6.69 11.22 69.57
75 Tunisia 0.00 0.00 18.50 19.87 5.53 170.64 5.34 187.01 12.63 20.17 7.67 7.05 114.47 163.05 81.11 197.50 37.66 1.07 1.37 1.88 0.85 6.34 11.22 12.78 68.34
76 Bulgaria 26.26 92.95 20.68 22.21 3.84 118.49 1.63 57.08 6.24 9.96 8.36 7.68 155.71 221.79 75.74 121.17 23.11 2.24 2.87 0.04 0.02 2.26 4.00 7.50 68.24
77 Slovakia 31.78 112.49 15.13 16.25 5.19 160.15 0.16 5.60 8.39 13.40 16.05 14.74 143.14 203.89 75.22 123.62 23.57 2.88 3.69 0.02 0.01 3.70 6.55 8.45 66.76
78 Morocco 0.01 0.04 20.77 22.31 8.04 248.10 4.36 152.69 17.44 27.85 6.68 6.14 54.68 77.89 76.43 179.70 34.27 1.10 1.41 0.00 0.00 3.23 5.72 10.35 66.08
79 South Korea 32.76 115.95 16.00 17.19 14.53 448.37 0.14 4.90 33.09 52.83 11.24 10.33 29.05 41.38 98.71 50.84 9.70 85.18 109.00 8.35 3.76 4.88 8.64 32.77 65.93
80 Niger 0.09 0.32 1.08 1.16 8.97 276.80 4.17 146.03 2.70 4.31 0.30 0.28 58.92 83.93 73.26 4.79 0.91 13.17 16.85 0.00 0.00 6.95 12.30 7.52 65.74
81 Kenya 0.29 1.03 0.47 0.50 9.54 294.38 1.86 65.14 4.27 6.82 1.84 1.69 94.86 135.12 72.10 34.65 6.61 12.94 16.56 0.20 0.09 1.64 2.90 6.54 65.56
82 Egypt 0.02 0.07 14.43 15.50 12.88 397.45 1.58 55.33 21.46 34.26 4.59 4.22 59.46 84.69 84.50 146.83 28.00 39.77 50.89 0.64 0.29 1.82 3.22 20.60 63.90
83 Mauritius 4.08 14.44 38.51 41.37 5.99 184.84 4.08 142.88 19.66 31.39 6.32 5.81 117.27 167.04 83.97 114.02 21.74 45.56 58.30 0.30 0.14 2.33 4.12 21.08 62.89
84 Jordan 0.02 0.07 33.39 35.87 5.61 173.11 5.68 198.91 5.13 8.19 3.92 3.60 77.68 110.65 75.77 136.74 26.08 19.67 25.17 0.02 0.01 3.56 6.30 14.39 61.38
85 Georgia 8.93 31.61 12.28 13.19 6.04 186.38 0.63 22.06 10.42 16.64 6.12 5.62 149.26 212.61 69.73 163.43 31.17 2.64 3.38 0.00 0.00 2.47 4.37 9.73 60.00
86 Japan 20.62 72.98 19.42 20.86 9.15 282.35 0.14 4.90 31.10 49.66 19.15 17.59 72.06 102.64 78.71 45.04 8.59 59.85 76.59 7.34 3.30 2.59 4.58 23.27 55.45
87 El Salvador 3.23 11.43 19.84 21.31 5.95 183.60 0.02 0.70 6.25 9.98 9.51 8.74 124.34 177.11 58.98 28.19 5.38 10.53 13.48 0.80 0.36 1.10 1.95 5.29 53.69
88 Grenada 11.52 40.78 43.51 46.74 3.46 106.77 1.25 43.77 27.95 44.63 10.34 9.50 86.88 123.75 59.42 59.59 11.36 9.56 12.23 0.01 0.00 0.18 0.32 5.98 53.44
89 Honduras 6.48 22.94 20.29 21.80 7.19 221.87 0.04 1.40 2.70 4.31 5.19 4.77 91.33 130.09 58.17 37.36 7.12 14.42 18.45 0.01 0.00 0.75 1.33 6.73 51.44
90 Angola 8.89 31.47 17.33 18.62 8.42 259.82 1.08 37.82 15.24 24.33 1.11 1.02 12.30 17.52 55.80 40.72 7.77 8.12 10.39 0.52 0.23 2.26 4.00 5.60 50.20
91 Jamaica 3.99 14.12 52.51 56.41 3.97 122.51 1.26 44.13 21.95 35.05 2.27 2.09 91.13 129.81 57.73 70.67 13.48 23.45 30.01 0.00 0.00 1.82 3.22 11.68 46.05
92 Namibia 4.21 14.90 12.19 13.09 3.75 115.72 2.27 79.50 10.70 17.08 1.63 1.50 73.05 104.05 49.41 36.26 6.91 6.31 8.07 0.07 0.03 0.71 1.26 4.07 45.34
93 Cuba 19.82 70.15 20.15 21.65 6.39 197.18 1.24 43.42 4.76 7.60 9.82 9.02 99.94 142.35 70.20 54.62 10.42 67.70 86.64 6.34 2.85 0.23 0.41 25.08 45.12
94 Taiwan. ROC 39.37 139.35 32.13 34.51 5.21 160.77 0.92 32.22 18.29 29.20 13.08 12.02 41.72 59.43 66.79 50.92 9.71 45.85 58.67 16.95 7.63 9.06 16.04 23.01 43.77
95 China 38.43 136.02 13.20 14.18 5.12 157.99 3.13 109.61 21.01 33.55 18.76 17.23 32.66 46.52 73.59 63.36 12.08 78.18 100.05 3.66 1.65 6.39 11.31 31.27 42.31
96 Zimbabwe 2.65 9.38 4.97 5.34 7.37 227.42 0.96 33.62 2.80 4.47 1.75 1.61 31.90 45.44 46.75 31.31 5.97 10.09 12.91 0.54 0.24 2.22 3.93 5.76 40.99
97 Belize 16.80 59.46 28.31 30.41 4.86 149.97 0.14 4.90 7.57 12.09 4.85 4.46 80.30 114.38 53.67 54.06 10.31 28.42 36.37 1.88 0.85 5.58 9.88 14.35 39.32
98 Guatemala 4.85 17.17 16.45 17.67 5.60 172.80 0.23 8.05 1.08 1.72 14.61 13.42 46.60 66.38 42.46 35.90 6.85 5.66 7.24 0.32 0.14 2.00 3.54 4.44 38.02
99 Uganda 3.37 11.93 1.51 1.62 5.15 158.92 1.25 43.77 12.50 19.96 0.97 0.89 37.27 53.09 41.45 10.14 1.93 4.64 5.94 0.01 0.00 3.77 6.67 3.64 37.82
100 Tanzania 0.32 1.13 1.84 1.98 6.09 187.92 1.28 44.83 5.50 8.78 0.58 0.53 40.29 57.39 43.22 15.94 3.04 21.01 26.89 0.04 0.02 5.94 10.51 10.11 33.11
101 Malaysia 7.76 27.47 41.01 44.05 6.52 201.19 0.94 32.92 49.43 78.92 16.57 15.22 25.28 36.01 62.25 51.04 9.73 81.25 103.98 0.04 0.02 2.90 5.13 29.71 32.54
102 Ethiopia 0.02 0.07 0.66 0.71 3.61 111.40 1.57 54.98 0.24 0.38 0.36 0.33 44.14 62.87 32.96 31.26 5.96 2.25 2.88 0.45 0.20 1.21 2.14 2.80 30.17
103 Iran 0.00 0.00 25.38 27.26 3.58 110.47 3.69 129.22 9.80 15.65 7.70 7.07 46.69 66.51 50.88 153.31 29.24 29.95 38.33 0.00 0.00 12.16 21.52 22.27 28.61
104 Nicaragua 3.38 11.96 21.31 22.89 4.73 145.96 0.01 0.35 3.59 5.73 4.90 4.50 85.16 121.30 44.67 28.17 5.37 43.33 55.45 0.01 0.00 2.36 4.18 16.25 28.42
105 Peru 3.85 13.63 11.72 12.59 4.69 144.72 1.00 35.02 15.74 25.13 8.76 8.05 62.15 88.53 46.81 56.12 10.70 48.92 62.60 1.59 0.72 0.65 1.15 18.79 28.02
106 Nepal 0.67 2.37 1.56 1.68 7.89 243.47 2.10 73.54 2.17 3.46 1.42 1.30 52.10 74.21 57.15 50.46 9.62 87.75 112.29 0.01 0.00 2.42 4.28 31.55 25.60
107 Senegal 0.94 3.33 4.62 4.96 5.85 180.52 3.19 111.71 22.94 36.63 1.63 1.50 16.86 24.02 51.81 37.32 7.12 72.29 92.51 0.00 0.00 4.03 7.13 26.69 25.12
108 Zambia 1.66 5.88 3.29 3.53 4.76 146.88 0.68 23.81 6.20 9.90 3.32 3.05 9.71 13.83 29.56 12.10 2.31 3.05 3.90 7.30 3.29 5.04 8.92 4.60 24.95
109 Congo 2.39 8.46 13.02 13.99 4.35 134.23 0.40 14.01 26.22 41.86 0.60 0.55 10.69 15.23 32.62 40.07 7.64 16.51 21.13 0.00 0.00 3.08 5.45 8.56 24.06
110 Malawi 5.45 19.29 1.38 1.48 2.35 72.52 2.07 72.49 7.33 11.70 1.08 0.99 7.98 11.37 27.12 11.77 2.24 4.75 6.08 1.76 0.79 5.08 8.99 4.53 22.59
111 Cameroon 1.47 5.20 3.29 3.53 4.17 128.68 1.40 49.03 14.71 23.49 0.40 0.37 15.27 21.75 33.15 22.60 4.31 23.85 30.52 0.64 0.29 9.29 16.44 12.89 20.26
112 Rwanda 0.76 2.69 1.34 1.44 2.53 78.07 1.93 67.59 3.88 6.20 0.16 0.15 7.23 10.30 23.78 11.34 2.16 8.70 11.13 1.93 0.87 0.58 1.03 3.80 19.98
113 Nigeria 1.47 5.20 1.73 1.86 2.33 71.90 2.72 95.25 16.03 25.59 3.46 3.18 7.91 11.27 30.61 20.82 3.97 28.23 36.13 2.60 1.17 6.93 12.27 13.38 17.22
114 Vietnam 35.00 123.88 12.36 13.28 7.44 229.58 0.14 4.90 26.52 42.34 3.84 3.53 16.36 23.30 62.97 10.49 2.00 144.56 184.99 5.75 2.59 6.28 11.12 50.17 12.80
115 Madagascar 2.56 9.06 3.14 3.37 7.51 231.74 0.57 19.96 4.41 7.04 0.71 0.65 24.84 35.38 43.89 9.01 1.72 102.53 131.21 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.62 33.39 10.50
116 Togo 1.57 5.56 6.63 7.12 1.53 47.21 1.58 55.33 11.69 18.67 0.86 0.79 7.96 11.34 20.86 12.91 2.46 25.99 33.26 0.01 0.00 3.59 6.35 10.52 10.34
117 Myanmar 11.31 40.03 21.87 23.49 4.94 152.44 0.89 31.17 54.26 86.64 6.45 5.92 31.48 44.84 54.93 6.22 1.19 132.80 169.94 0.38 0.17 4.50 7.97 44.82 10.12
118 Ghana 1.36 4.81 8.63 9.27 1.09 33.64 1.74 60.93 26.05 41.59 1.21 1.11 9.08 12.93 23.47 14.45 2.76 32.03 40.99 0.01 0.00 5.56 9.84 13.40 10.07
119 Guinea 0.16 0.57 1.83 1.97 6.26 193.17 1.60 56.03 9.18 14.66 1.95 1.79 20.62 29.37 42.51 18.55 3.54 97.12 124.28 0.00 0.00 4.14 7.33 33.79 8.72
120 Mozambique 5.13 18.16 1.41 1.51 1.04 32.09 0.90 31.52 7.74 12.36 1.70 1.56 4.79 6.82 14.86 14.65 2.79 23.41 29.96 0.03 0.01 2.61 4.62 9.35 5.51
121 Gambia 0.18 0.64 2.66 2.86 2.16 66.65 0.71 24.86 23.13 36.93 0.99 0.91 45.71 65.11 28.28 37.91 7.23 61.84 79.14 0.00 0.00 5.27 9.33 23.92 4.36
122 Philippines 18.40 65.13 11.91 12.79 4.06 125.28 0.56 19.61 28.51 45.52 4.02 3.69 15.66 22.31 42.05 23.12 4.41 119.44 152.85 0.03 0.01 2.08 3.68 40.24 1.81
123 India 0.28 0.99 1.88 2.02 0.81 24.99 0.58 20.31 4.71 7.52 2.58 2.37 84.50 120.36 25.51 60.56 11.55 69.49 88.93 0.39 0.18 1.92 3.40 26.01 -0.50
124 Thailand 13.00 46.01 13.69 14.71 2.56 79.00 0.05 1.75 19.45 31.06 12.35 11.34 29.35 41.81 32.24 10.93 2.08 114.57 146.62 2.13 0.96 1.50 2.66 38.08 -5.84
125 Sierra Leone 1.22 4.32 4.97 5.34 1.99 61.41 0.65 22.76 32.03 51.14 1.92 1.76 7.00 9.97 22.39 8.72 1.66 103.30 132.19 0.00 0.00 5.57 9.86 35.93 -13.54
126 Sri Lanka 0.05 0.18 4.96 5.33 1.38 42.58 0.09 3.15 24.92 39.79 4.57 4.20 34.98 49.83 20.72 37.01 7.06 109.72 140.41 0.00 0.00 1.09 1.93 37.35 -16.63
127 Cambodia 6.52 23.08 1.84 1.98 4.85 149.66 0.00 0.00 39.59 63.21 1.37 1.26 3.47 4.94 34.88 2.74 0.52 159.10 203.60 4.33 1.95 1.25 2.21 52.07 -17.20
128 Liberia 4.01 14.19 8.91 9.57 0.78 24.07 0.48 16.81 4.13 6.59 2.05 1.88 3.04 4.33 11.06 10.95 2.09 94.75 121.25 0.63 0.28 1.31 2.32 31.49 -20.42
129 Indonesia 2.98 10.55 7.50 8.06 2.59 79.92 0.46 16.11 25.65 40.95 4.88 4.48 14.82 21.11 25.88 25.45 4.85 134.62 172.27 1.12 0.50 4.92 8.71 46.58 -20.70
130 Bangladesh 0.00 0.00 1.40 1.50 1.28 39.50 1.33 46.58 18.07 28.85 2.08 1.91 21.91 31.21 21.36 17.47 3.33 171.73 219.76 0.61 0.27 0.72 1.27 56.16 -34.80

Methodology

This study looks at 130 countries around the world to determine how much carbon dioxide (CO2) each country emits, based on their diet. This is calculated through the amount of food supplied for consumption and how many kgs of CO2 per kg of produce, per person annually. This country-level data is split between animal-based and non-animal based diets.

The data looks at the amount of animal produce (pork, poultry, beef, lamb & goat, fish, eggs, and milk – including cheese) and non-animal produce (wheat and wheat products, rice, soybeans, nuts- including peanut butter) which is supplied for consumption in each country.

Definitions:

Supplied for Consumption (kg/person/year): The amount of food, in kg, which a country supplies for consumption. As this is a figure of supply intended for consumption this may also include a percentage of food which would not be consumed, such as food waste.

Kg CO2/person/year: Based on the amount of food supplied for consumption, this number indicates how many kgs of CO2 is produced annually per person.

Average kg CO2/person/year: This number shows average CO2 emissions per country based on a animal-based and non animal-based diet.

Difference – Kg CO2/person/year: Difference between the CO2 production of 1 kg of animal product and 1 kg of non-animal product, over the year. I.E. If you cut out 1 kg of animal product and replace it with 1 kg of non-animal product, you would save this much CO2 per year per person. Where a negative number is shown, this implies that the country supplies a much higher quantity of non-animal product for consumption than of animal product.

The data is ranked highest to lowest based on the Difference – Kg CO2/person/year for animal products as compared to. non-animal products. The sum to calculate this value can be expressed as written below:

 

Average kg CO2/person/year Animal Products – Average kg CO2/person/year Non-Animal Products = Difference – Kg CO2/person/year

 

General Note: ‘0’ does not necessarily mean zero as displayed in the data, as data is collected up to 4 decimal points.

 

Sources:

  • Food for human consumption in terms of (kg/person/year) is taken from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Balance Sheets. Population data is also extracted from FAO, as the data is already divided by population.
  • Food categories are defined as by FAO, with the exception of Fish, which includes the FAO categories of Freshwater Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish, and Marine Fish, Other. In addition, Nuts and Nut Products also include groundnuts (inc. peanuts).

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food Balance sheets. Items: Seed, Feed, Food, and Food supply quantity (kg/capita/yr), Wheat and products, Rice (Milled Equivalent), Maize and products, Soybeans, Bovine Meat, Mutton and goat meat, Pigmeat, Poultry Meat, Eggs, Milk (including cheese, excluding butter), Sunflower seeds, Fish: Freshwater Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish, and Marine Fish, and Other. Data collected on 2018-03-06. Last update of FAO: January 8, 2018. Year of data points: 2013. For full food balance sheets used, including reference numbers, please contact us and we can supply this.

Additional FAO descriptions:

  • Food Balance Sheet: “Food Balance Sheet presents a comprehensive picture of the pattern of a country’s food supply during a specified reference period. The food balance sheet shows for each food item – i.e. each primary commodity and a number of processed commodities potentially available for human consumption – the sources of supply and its utilization. The total quantity of foodstuffs produced in a country added to the total quantity imported and adjusted to any change in stocks that may have occurred since the beginning of the reference period gives the supply available during that period. On the utilization side a distinction is made between the quantities exported, fed to livestock, used for seed, put to manufacture for food use and non-food uses, losses during storage and transportation, and food supplies available for human consumption. The per capita supply of each such food item available for human consumption is then obtained by dividing the respective quantity by the related data on the population actually partaking of it. Data on per capita food supplies are expressed in terms of quantity.”
  • Kg CO2/person/year is calculated by multiplying the supply for human consumption in terms of (kg/person/year) and the median of emissions intensity in the world for that product.
  • Emissions intensities are from FAO (when available). Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Emissions intensities Items: Data collected on 2018-03-09. Last update of FAO: December 12, 2017. Year of data points: 2014

Emissions intensity (as described in FAO): “Intensities of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by production unit for a selection of agricultural commodities, kg CO2eq/kg product. The Emissions Intensities agri-environmental indicators are computed from FAO statistics, available in the Emissions and Production sections of FAOSTAT. The indicator is furthermore consistent with the System of Environmental and Economic Accounts for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The data provide first-order analyses of the GHG performance of a range of commodities, based on their efficiency of production, by country and over time. Derived by using a transparent methodology, the estimates are easily reproducible from the underlying FAOSTAT national data. At the same time, the GHG emissions used in the computation of the FAOSTAT Emissions Intensities indicator are limited to emissions generated within the farm gate. Additional emissions from upstream and downstream production and consumption processes and trade are excluded.”

  • The study uses the median emissions data in order to discount the intensity of outliers, which would be a problem if an average was taken. The study uses the world level for CO2, because the study does not differentiate between imported products and local products, as well as consumption differences between the two. E.g. Brazil has a very high level of beef exportation, meaning its CO2 production levels are disproportionately high to the country’s consumption levels.
  • The median global emissions data was used for the study, but we can provide country-level CO2 data for each food type upon request.
  • General note: Country level data sourced from FAO when available. For emission intensities that are not available for many countries (e.g. nuts, fish and soybeans), values provided in the following reports are used: MacLeod, M., Gerber, P., Mottet, A., Tempio, G., Falcucci, A., Opio, C., Vellinga, T., Henderson, B. & Steinfeld, H. 2013. Greenhouse gas emissions from pig and chicken supply chains – A global life cycle assessment. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome; Opio, C., Gerber, P., Mottet, A., Falcucci, A., Tempio, G., MacLeod, M., Vellinga, T., Henderson, B. & Steinfeld, H. 2013. Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant supply chains – A global life cycle assessment. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome; Greenhouse gas emissions from aquaculture, A life cycle assessment of three Asian systems, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2017; Castanheira ÉG, Freire F, Greenhouse gas assessment of soybeanproduction: implications of land use change and different cultivation systems, Journal of CleanerProduction (2013), doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.05.026; Climate change on your plate, WWF Germany, Berlin October 2012.

2017 Worldwide average CO2 emissions per food type, per person, per year:

  • Pork = 3.54 kg
  • Poultry= 1.07 kg
  • Beef = 30.86 kg
  • Lamb & Goat = 35.02 kg
  • Fish = 1.60 kg
  • Eggs = 0.92 kg
  • Milk – including cheese = 1.42 kg
  • Wheat & Wheat Products = 0.19 kg
  • Rice = 1.28 kg
  • Soybeans = 0.45 kg
  • Nuts – including Peanut Butter = 1.77 kg